BREAKING NEWS
newsdailyApril 3, 2021
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5min690

Bitcoin is a digital currency that was created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a whitepaper by the mysterious and pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto. The identity of the person or persons who created the technology is still a mystery. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and, unlike government-issued currencies, it is operated by a decentralized authority.

Bitcoin’s latest volatility has both skeptics and fans claiming their predictions are finally coming true. It’s like an online version of cash. You can use it to buy products and services, but not many shops accept Bitcoin yet and some countries have banned it altogether. However, some companies are beginning to buy into its growing influence. In October last year, for example, the online payment service, PayPal, announced that it would be allowing its customers to buy and sell Bitcoin.

In February, Bitcoin hit a new record high of $58,000 (€47,480). The price had fallen to just above $46,000. The drop followed a weekend in which Tesla CEO and Bitcoin fan Elon Musk tweeted skepticism at the coin’s seemingly unstoppable rally, saying he thought the cryptocurrency could be overvalued.

The buzz was enough to draw criticism from US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen as well as billionaire and Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates. “My general thought would be that, if you have less money than Elon, you should probably watch out,” Gates told Bloomberg.

But Bitcoin believers have remained bullish. after 2 or 3 days, the coin had climbed again and was trading near $50,000. The latest activity has forecasters on both sides of the Bitcoin debate claiming their predictions are coming true.

Why do people want Bitcoins?

Some people like the fact that Bitcoin is not controlled by the government or banks. People can also spend their Bitcoins fairly anonymously. Although all transactions are recorded, nobody would know which ‘account number’ was yours unless you told them. In an online chat with social media users in January 2021, the world’s richest man, Elon Musk, said he was a big supporter of Bitcoin. He even went as far as to change his Twitter bio to “#bitcoin”. He has repeatedly shown his support to online currencies in recent years and caused major movements in their values due to his own personal wealth and influence. This particular endorsement led to the value of Bitcoin to rise significantly.

Is it secure?

Every transaction is recorded publicly so it’s very difficult to copy Bitcoins, make fake ones or spend ones you don’t own. It is possible to lose your Bitcoin wallet or delete your Bitcoins and lose them forever. There have also been thefts from websites that let you store your Bitcoins remotely.

The value of Bitcoins has gone up and down over the years since it was created in 2009 and some people don’t think it’s safe to turn your ‘real’ money into Bitcoins. This concern was expressed by the head of The Bank of England, Andrew Bailey, in October 2020. He said that he was “very nervous” about people using Bitcoin for payments pointing out that investors should realise its price is extremely volatile. By this, he meant that the value could drop significantly at any moment and investors could lose a lot of money.


newsdailyMarch 31, 2021
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3min640

Cryptocurrency can be purchased on peer-to-peer networks and cryptocurrency exchanges, such as Coinbase and Bitfinex. Keep an eye out for fees, though, as some of these exchanges charge what can be prohibitively high costs on small crypto purchases. Coinbase, for instance, charges a fee of 0.5% of your purchase plus a flat fee of $0.99 to $2.99 depending on the size of your transaction.

according to Forbes, More recently, the investing app Robinhood started offering the ability to buy several of the top cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum and Dogecoin, without the fees of many of the major exchanges. “It was once fairly difficult but now it’s relatively easy, even for crypto novices,” Zeiler says. “An exchange like Coinbase caters to non-technical folks. It’s very easy to set up an account there and link it to a bank account.”

But keep in mind that buying individual cryptocurrencies is a little like buying individual stocks. Since you’re putting all of your money into one security, you take on more risk than if you spread it out over hundreds or thousands, like you could with a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund (ETF). Unfortunately, crypto funds are currently in short supply.

There is a Bitcoin mutual fund—the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (GBTC), but it is currently only open to accredited investors, meaning most Americans aren’t eligible to buy into it. There are no Bitcoin or crypto ETFs; however, there are blockchain ETFs.

If you want exposure to the crypto market, you might invest in individual stocks of crypto companies. “As far as crypto-oriented stocks go, Coinbase is expected to have an IPO sometime in 2021,” Zeiler says. “There are also a few Bitcoin mining stocks such as Hive Blockchain (HIVE). If you want some crypto exposure with less risk, you can invest in big companies that are adopting blockchain technology, such as IBM, Bank of America and Microsoft.”

Coinbase is one popular cryptocurrency trading exchange where you can create both a wallet and buy and sell Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Also, a growing number of online brokers offer cryptocurrencies, such as eToro, Tradestation and Sofi Active Investing. Robinhood offers free cryptocurrency trades (Robinhood Crypto is available in most, but not all, U.S. states).


newsdailyMarch 29, 2021
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2min1430

Cryptocurrency is decentralized digital money, based on blockchain technology. Cryptocurrency is a form of payment that can be exchanged online for goods and services. Many companies have issued their own currencies, often called tokens, and these can be traded specifically for the good or service that the company provides. Think of them as you would arcade tokens or casino chips. You’ll need to exchange real currency for the cryptocurrency to access the good or service. You can use crypto to buy regular goods and services, although many people invest in cryptocurrencies as they would in other assets, like stocks or precious metals.

More than 6,700 different cryptocurrencies are traded publicly, according to CoinMarketCap.com, a market research website. And cryptocurrencies continue to proliferate, raising money through initial coin offerings, or ICOs. The total value of all cryptocurrencies on Feb. 18, 2021, was more than $1.6 trillion, according to CoinMarketCap, and the total value of all bitcoins, the most popular digital currency, was pegged at about $969.6billion.

These are the 10 largest trading cryptocurrencies by market capitalization as tracked by CoinMarketCap, a cryptocurrency data and analytics provider. These includes bitcoins, Ethereum, Tether, Binance Coin, Cardano, Polkadot, XRP, Litecoin, Chainlink and Bitcoin Cash.

Now the question arises that weather cryptocurrencies legal or not. And the answer is , there’s no question that they’re legal in the United States, though China has essentially banned their use, and ultimately whether they’re legal depends on each individual country. Also be sure to consider how to protect yourself from fraudsters who see cryptocurrencies as an opportunity to bilk investors. As always, buyer beware.

 

 

 


newsdailyMarch 11, 2021
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1min1470

واقعہ معراج اللہ تعالیٰ کی قدرت کی نشانیوں میں سے ایک نشانی ہے جو چشم زدن میں بظاہر رونما ہوا لیکن حقیقت میں اس میں کتنا وقت لگا یہ اللہ تعالیٰ اور اس کے رسول صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم بہتر جانتے ہیں۔ اللہ تعالیٰ نے اس واقعہ میں اپنے محبوب پیغمبر حضرت محمد صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کو اپنی قدرت کاملہ کا مشاہدہ کرایا۔ واقعہ معراج اعلان نبوت کے دسویں سال اور مدینہ ہجرت سے ایک سال پہلے مکہ میں پیش آیا۔ یہ واقع ماہ رجب میں پیش آیا۔ رجب اُن 4 مہینوں میں سے ایک ہے جنہیں اللہ تبارک وتعالیٰ نے حرمت والے مہینے قرار دیا ہے، ارشاد ہے :
’’  اللہ کے نزدیک مہینوں کی تعداد12مہینے ہے جو اللہ کی کتاب (یعنی لوح محفوظ ) کے مطابق اُس دن سے نافذ ہیں جس دن اللہ نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو پیدا کیا، ان (12مہینوں) میں سے4 حرمت والے ہیں۔‘‘( التوبہ36)۔
ان 4 مہینوں کی تحدید قرآن کریم میں نہیں بلکہ نبی اکرم  نے ان کو بیان فرمایا ہے اوروہ یہ ہیں
ذوالقعدہ، ذوالحجہ، محرم الحرام اور رجب المرجب۔

رجب کا مہینہ شروع ہونے پر حضور اکرم  اللہ تعالیٰ سے یہ دعا مانگا کرتے تھے
اَللّٰہُمَّ بَارِکْ لَنَا فِیْ رَجَبٍ وَشَعْبَانَ وَبَلِّغْنَا رَمَضَان۔
’’  اے اللہ!  رجب اور شعبان کے مہینوں میں ہمیں برکت عطا فرما اور ماہ رمضان تک ہمیں پہنچا۔‘‘

ماہ رجب کی ستائیسویں رات ، اللہ تعالیٰ فرشتوں سے ارشاد فرماتا ہے: اے فرشتو!  آج کی رات جنت الفردوس کو لباس اور زیور سے آراستہ کرو۔ میری فرمانبرداری کا کلاہ اپنے سر پر باندھ لو۔ اے جبرائیل! میرا یہ پیغام میکائیل کو سنا دو کہ رزق کا پیمانہ ہاتھ سے علیحدہ کردے۔ اسرافیل سے کہہ دو کہ وہ صور کو کچھ عرصہ کے لئے موقوف کردے۔ عذرائیل سے کہہ دو کہ کچھ دیر کے لئے روحوں کو قبض کرنے سے ہاتھ اٹھالے۔ رضوان سے کہہ دو کہ وہ جنت الفردوس کی درجہ بندی کرے۔ مالک سے کہہ دو کہ دوزخ کو تالہ لگادے۔ خلد بریں کی روحوں سے کہہ دو کہ آراستہ و پیراستہ ہوجائیں اور جنت کے محلوں کی چھتوں پر صف بستہ کھڑی ہوجائیں۔ مشرق سے مغرب تک جس قدر قبریں ہیں ان سے عذاب ختم کردیا جائے۔ آج کی رات (شب معراج) میرے محبوب حضرت محمد صلیٰ اللہ علیہ  وآلہ وسلم کے استقبال کے لئے تیار ہوجاؤ۔

حکم ربی ہوا: اے جبرائیل! اپنے ساتھ ستر ہزار فرشتے لے جاؤ۔ حکم الہٰی سن کر جبریل امین علیہ السلام سواری لینے جنت میں جاتے ہیں اور آپ نے ایسی سواری کا انتخاب کیا جو آج تک کسی شہنشاہ کو بھی میسر نہ ہوئی ہوگی۔ میسر ہونا تو دور کی بات ہے دیکھی تک نہ ہوگی۔ اس سواری کا نام براق ہے۔ تفسیر روح البیان میں ہے کہ نبی کریم صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم سے پہلے براق پر کوئی سوار نہیں ہوا۔

فضاؤں میں عجیب سی کیفیت طاری ہے۔ رات آہستہ آہستہ کیف و نشاط کی مستی میں مست ہوتی جارہی ہے۔ ستارے پوری آب و تاب کے ساتھ جھلملا رہے ہیں۔ پوری دنیا پر سکوت و خاموشی کا عالم طاری ہے۔ حضور صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم ے سفر کی تیاری شروع کی۔ اس موقع پر حضرت جبرائیل امین علیہ السلام نے آپ کا سینہ مبارک چاک کیا اور دل کو دھویا۔ حضور صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کا ارشاد گرامی ہے کہ میرے پاس ایک آنے والا آیا اور اس نے میرا سینہ چاک کیا۔ سینہ چاک کرنے کے بعد میرا دل نکالا پھر میرے پاس سونے کا ایک طشت لایا گیا جو ایمان و حکمت سے لبریز تھا۔ اس کے بعد میرے دل کو دھویا گیا پھر وہ ایمان و حکمت سے لبریز ہوگیا۔ اس قلب کو سینہ اقدس میں اس کی جگہ پر رکھ دیا گیا۔

چند لمحوں کے بعد وہ وقت بھی آگیا کہ سرور کونین حضرت محمد صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم براق پر تشریف فرما ہوگئے۔ حضرت جبرائیل علیہ السلام نے رکاب تھام لی۔ حضرت میکائیل علیہ السلام نے لگام پکڑی۔ حضرت اسرافیل علیہ السلام نے زین کو سنبھالا۔ حضرت امام کاشفی رحمۃ اللہ علیہ فرماتے ہیں کہ معراج کی رات اسی ہزار فرشتے حضور صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم کے دائیں طرف اور اسی ہزار بائیں طرف تھے۔ آپ صلیٰ اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم نہایت شان و شوکت سے ملائکہ کے جلوس میں مسجد حرام سے مسجد اقصیٰ کی طرف روانہ ہوتے ہیں۔ وہاں تمام انبیائے کرام نے حضور اکرم  کی اقتداء میں نماز پڑھی، پھر آسمانوں کی طرف لے جایا گیا۔

پہلے آسمان پر حضرت آدم علیہ السلام ، دوسرے آسمان پر حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ السلام اور حضرت یحییٰ علیہ السلام، تیسرے آسمان پر حضرت یوسف علیہ السلام، چوتھے آسمان پر حضرت ادریس علیہ السلام، پانچویں آسمان پر حضرت ہارون علیہ السلام، چھٹے آسمان پر حضرت موسیٰ علیہ السلام اور ساتویں آسمان پر حضرت ابراہیم علیہ السلام سے ملاقات ہوئی۔ اس کے بعد البیت المعمور حضور اکرم  کے سامنے کردیا گیا جہاں روزانہ 70ہزار فرشتے اللہ کی عبادت کے لئے داخل ہوتے ہیں جو دوبارہ اس میں لوٹ کر نہیں آتے۔ پھر آپ  کو سدرۃ ِالمنتہیٰ تک لے جایا گیا۔ آپ  نے دیکھا کہ اس کے پتے اتنے بڑے ہیں جیسے ہاتھی کے کان ہوں اور اس کے پھل اتنے بڑے بڑے ہیںجیسے مٹکے ہوں۔ جب سدرۃ ِالمنتہیٰ کو اللہ کے حکم سے ڈھانکنے والی چیزوں نے ڈھانک لیا تو اس کا حال بدل گیا۔ اللہ تعالیٰ کی کسی بھی مخلوق میںاتنی طاقت نہیں کہ اس کے حسن کو بیان کرسکے۔ آپ  کوسدرۃ ِالمنتہیٰ کی جڑ میں 4نہریں نظر آئیں،2 باطنی نہریں اور2 ظاہری نہریں۔ حضور اکرم  کے دریافت کرنے پر حضرت جبرئیل علیہ السلام نے بتایا کہ باطنی2 نہریں جنت کی نہریں ہیں اور ظاہری 2 نہریں فرات اور نیل ہیں (فرات عراق اور نیل مصر میں ہے)۔

اس وقت اللہ تبارک وتعالیٰ نے ان چیزوں کی وحی فرمائی جن کی وحی اس وقت فرما ئی تھی اور 50 نمازیں فرض کیں۔  واپسی پررسول اللہ   کی حضرت موسیٰ علیہ السلام سے ملاقات ہوئی ۔ حضرت موسیٰ علیہ السلام کے کہنے پر حضور اکرم    چند مرتبہ اللہ تعالیٰ کے دربار میں حاضر ہوئے اور نماز کی تخفیف کی درخواست کی۔ ہر مرتبہ 5نمازیں معاف کردی گئیں یہاں تک کہ صرف 5 نمازیں رہ گئیں۔ حضرت موسیٰ علیہ السلام نے اس پر بھی مزید تخفیف کی بات کہی  لیکن اس کے بعد حضور اکرم  نے کہا کہ مجھے اس سے زیادہ تخفیف کا سوال کرنے میں شرم محسوس ہوتی ہے اور میں اللہ کے اس حکم کو تسلیم کرتا ہوں۔ اس پر اللہ تعالیٰ کی طرف سے یہ ندا دی گئی
” میرے پاس بات بدلی نہیں جاتی ۔‘‘
یعنی میں نے اپنے فریضہ کا حکم باقی رکھا اور اپنے بندوں سے تخفیف کردی اور میں ایک نیکی کا بدلہ10 بناکر دیتا ہوں۔ غرضیکہ نماز ادا کرنے میں 5 ہیں اورثواب میں 50 ہی ہیں۔ اس موقع پر حضور اکرم  کو اللہ تعالیٰ سے انسان کا رشتہ جوڑنے کا سب سے اہم ذریعہ یعنی نماز کی فرضیت کا تحفہ ملا۔

اس کے علاوہ  اللہ تعالیٰ نے 2انعام مزید عطا فرمایا
سورۃ البقرہ کی آخری آیت (آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ سے لے کر آخر تک) عنایت فرمائی گئی۔
اس قانون کا اعلان کیا گیا کہ حضور اکرم  کے امتیوں کے شرک کے علاوہ تمام گناہوں کی معافی ممکن ہے یعنی کبیرہ گناہو ں کی وجہ سے ہمیشہ عذاب میں نہیں رہیں گے بلکہ توبہ سے معاف ہوجائیں گے یا عذاب بھگت کر چھٹکارا مل جائے گا  البتہ کافر اور مشرک ہمیشہ جہنم میں رہیں گے۔
زمانہ   ٔ قدیم سے اختلاف چلا آرہا ہے کہ حضور اکرم  شب معراج میں اللہ تعالیٰ کے دیدار  سے مشرف ہوئے یا نہیںاور اگر رؤیت ہوئی تو وہ رؤیتِ بصری تھی یا رؤیتِ قلبی ، البتہ ہمارے لئے اتنا مان لینا  کافی ہے کہ یہ واقعہ برحق ہے،  بیداری کی حالت میں ہوا  اور حضور اکرم  کا یہ ایک بڑا معجزہ ہے۔

 

 


newsdailyMarch 10, 2021
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11min1290

WASHINGTON : President Joe Biden laid out an ambitious agenda for his first 100 days in office, promising swift action on everything from climate change to immigration reform to the coronavirus pandemic.

He hits his 50th day in office on Wednesday as his administration eyes a major milestone: final congressional passage of his massive $1.9 trillion coronavirus aid package. The bill includes direct payments to millions of Americans and money to help the White House deliver on a number of Biden’s biggest campaign promises, like reopening schools and getting more Americans vaccinated.

Fifty days in, Biden has taken major steps on a number of key campaign pledges for his earliest days in office, while others are still awaiting action. Where he stands on some of his major promises:

Goals which were completed

Biden prioritized addressing the coronavirus pandemic during his first weeks in office, and the focus has paid off. He’s on pace to hit his goal of 100 million vaccine doses administered in his first 100 days as soon as the end of next week. The daily rate of vaccinations now averages more than 2 million shots, and more than 75 million doses have been administered since Biden was sworn in.

Biden also  took several early actions that fulfilled pledges on climate policy. He signed an executive order on Inauguration Day that revoked the permit for the Keystone XL oil pipeline, halted development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and ordered the review of Trump-era rules on the environment, public health and science. A Jan. 27 executive order halted new oil and gas leases on federal lands and offshore waters.

Biden also easily delivered on top campaign pledges that involved rolling back Trump administration moves on everything from climate change to immigration. Early on, the Biden administration rejoined the World Health Organization and the Paris Climate Accord, halted construction of the border wall, ended travel restrictions on people from a variety of Muslim-majority countries and created a task force to reunite families separated at the U.S.-Mexico border.

On immigration, Biden pledged to deliver a comprehensive reform bill to Congress within his first 100 days, and it was unveiled last month, although Biden already has signaled an openness to a piece-by-piece approach if necessary. Biden also issued an executive order directing the Homeland Security secretary to “preserve and fortify” protections for young immigrants brought to the U.S. by their parents.

Biden also made some early moves to deliver on a pledge to tighten ethical standards in his administration, including a Jan. 20 executive order imposing an ethics pledge on appointees governing activities such as lobbying and taking gifts, which included prohibiting political interference in the Justice Department.

Work in Progress

Biden’s national COVID-19 strategy pledged to establish 100 new, federally supported vaccination centers across the nation by the end of February. So far, the administration is at about 20 mass vaccination sites run end-to-end by the federal government and staffed by active-duty troops deployed by the Pentagon. Overall, the administration says, at least 441 vaccination sites are now federally supported. Many of those were not new sites, but nearly all have expanded capacity with the additional federal resources.

On immigration, Biden pledged to reverse the “public charge” rule put in place by the Trump administration to discourage immigrants from using public benefits, to streamline the naturalization process and to reform the U.S. asylum system within his first 100 days. An executive order he signed in early February directs the relevant agencies to review those policies and recommend changes within 60 days.

The administration has made some moves to reform the asylum system, including a move by the Department of Homeland Security on Biden’s first day in office to suspend a Trump-era program requiring asylum seekers to wait in Mexico while their claims were under review. But Biden has yet to articulate a plan to manage asylum flows beyond proposing that billions of dollars be spent to address root causes in Central America.

The president has also kept in place pandemic-related powers that allow his administration to immediately expel people at the border without an opportunity to seek asylum. Biden aides have said they have no immediate plans to end the authority, which Trump introduced a year ago using an obscure 1944 public health law.

Biden also promised to end the long-term detention of migrant families. Immigration and Customs Enforcement signaled last week it plans to discontinue the use of one such facility, but ICE will continue to hold families for three days or less at two other facilities in Texas. And the Biden administration is expanding capacity at a number of long-term facilities that hold immigrant children, to address an ongoing surge of unaccompanied minors at the border.

On climate change, Biden pledged to establish enforceable commitments from other nations to reduce emissions in global shipping and aviation and to convene a climate world summit to discuss new and more ambitious pledges to address climate change, within his first 100 days. The U.S. will hold such a summit on April 22, Earth Day.

This month he directed states to prioritize vaccinating teachers and announced he was directing federal resources toward vaccinating teachers in March. The Biden administration hopes that with the passage of the coronavirus relief bill and distribution of millions in aid for schools to improve safety measures, teachers will feel more comfortable returning to in-person learning.

Reopening America’s schools is one of Biden’s major campaign promises that’s proven tougher to execute, in part because the decision on whether to return to in-person learning is left up to local officials and teachers’ unions. After some back-and-forth over the details of his goal, Biden said last month that his 100-day mission was to have most elementary schools open five days a week for in-person learning.

AWAITING ACTION

The Biden administration has yet to take significant action on criminal justice reform, aside from an executive order terminating private prison contracts. Biden pledged to set up a police oversight board within his first 100 days, but there’s been no clear movement in that direction so far. Other 100-day pledges also awaiting movement: creating a Cabinet-level working group focused on promoting union participation, and ordering an FBI review of issues with gun purchase background checks.

Some of Biden’s 100-day pledges will require congressional action, like his promise to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act and increase taxes on corporations. Biden also promised to make passage of the Equality Act, which bars discrimination on the basis of sex, sexual orientation and gender identity, a priority in his first 100 days. That bill has passed the House but not the Senate.

And some of his promises are waiting on Biden’s Cabinet secretaries to be confirmed by the Senate. On gun control, Biden has said he would direct his attorney general to deliver recommendations to restructure key Justice Department agencies to more effectively enforce the nation’s gun laws. He also pledged to have his secretary of Housing and Urban Development lead a task force to create recommendations for making housing a right for all Americans.

Both his attorney general nominee, Merrick Garland, and his nominee to lead the Housing Department, Rep. Marcia Fudge, are expected to win confirmation this week. Associated press reported.


newsdailyNovember 9, 2020
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The 143rd birth anniversary of the poet of the East is celebrated with traditional zeal, enthusiasm, and passion across the country. Allama Iqbal was a philosopher, poet, and politician in British India who was born on 9 November 1877. He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both Urdu and Persian languages.he was also called as Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times. Iqbal is known as Shair-e-Mashriq meaning Poet of the East. He is also called Muffakir-e-Pakistan (“The Inceptor of Pakistan”) and Hakeem-ul-Ummat (“The Sage of the Ummah”). In Iran and Afghanistan, he is famous as Iqbāl-e Lāhorī or Iqbal of Lahore, and he is most appreciated for his Persian work. Pakistan Government had recognised him as its “national poet. He has different literary and narrative works. His first poetry book, Asrar-e-Khudi, appeared in the Persian language in 1915, and other books of poetry include Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, Payam-i-Mashriq, and Zabur-i-Ajam. Amongst these, his best known Urdu works are Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-Jibril, Zarb-i Kalim, and a part of Armughan-e-Hijaz and also Pas Che bayad kard.

He had series of lectures in different educational institutions that were later on published by Oxford press as ‘’the Reconstruction of Islamic religious thoughts in Islam’’. Iqbal was influenced by the teachings of Sir Thomas Arnold, his philosophy teacher at Government College Lahore, Arnold’s teachings determined Iqbal to pursue higher education in West. In 1905, he traveled to England for his higher education. Iqbal qualified for a scholarship from Trinity College in Cambridge and obtained Bachelor of Arts in 1906, and in the same year, he was called to the bar as a barrister from Lincoln’s Inn. In 1907, Iqbal moved to Germany to study doctorate and earned a Ph.D. degree from Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich in 1908. Working under the guidance of Friedrich Hommel, Iqbal published his doctoral thesis in 1908 entitled: The Development of Metaphysics in Persia.

During his study in Europe, Iqbal began to write poetry in Persian. He prioritized it because he believed he had found an easy way to express his thoughts. He would write continuously in Persian throughout his life. Iqbal, after completing his Master of Arts degree in 1899, initiated his career as a reader of Arabic at Oriental College and shortly was selected as a junior professor of philosophy at Government College Lahore, where he had also been a student; Iqbal worked there until he left for England in 1905. In 1908, Iqbal returned from England and joined again the same college as a professor of philosophy and English literature. At the same period, Iqbal began practicing law at Chief Court Lahore, but soon Iqbal quit law practice, and devoted himself to literary works, and became an active member of Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam. In 1919, he became the general secretary of the same organisation. Iqbal’s thoughts in his work primarily focus on the spiritual direction and development of human society, centered around experiences from his travels and stays in Western Europe and the Middle East. He was profoundly influenced by Western philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson, and Goethe.

Iqbal had a great role in the Muslim political movement. Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I, as well as the Khilafat movement, and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindus and was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.

In his presidential address on December 29, 1930, Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in northwestern India, “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind, and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian Muslim state appears to me to be, at least of Northwest India.

Iqbal was the first patron of the historical, political, religious, cultural journal of Muslims of British India. This journal played an important part in the Pakistan movement. The name of this journal is The Journal Tolu-e-Islam.

Iqbal wrote two books on the topic of The Development of Metaphysics in Persia and The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam and many letters in the English language, besides his Urdu and Persian literary works. In which, he revealed his thoughts regarding Persian ideology and Islamic Sufism in particular, his beliefs that Islamic Sufism activates the searching soul to a superior perception of life. He also discussed philosophy, God and the meaning of prayer, the human spirit, and Muslim culture, as well as other political, social, and religious problems.

Iqbal died on 21st April 1938 due to a severe throat infection that lasted for long till his death. He was buried in Lahore near Badshahi Mosque. He will be remembered for good.



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